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A Brief History of TI Object File Formats
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A better title for this article is Overview of TI Object File Formats. But that's boring. This article brings together the basics about object file formats used by TI code generation tools. It also gives some background on two closely related topics: hex files and debug information.
An object file contains the binary representation of the code to be executed. An object file format specifies the organization of the information in the file. An Internet search on those terms yields lots of good background information.
ELF: Executable and Linking Format
The dominant object file format in use is named ELF, which stands for Executable and Linking Format. As of this writing, ELF is the default (or only) object file format for every TI toolset except C2000. For compilers which support both formats, the switch --abi=eabi sets the application binary interface (ABI) to EABI, which includes, among other things, use of ELF format.
Is ELF an industry standard? Well, there is no standards body behind it such as the ANSI committees behind the C and C++ standards. Nonetheless, it is much closer to a standard than COFF (described next). It is fairly easy to encode information in an ELF file that only TI tools recognize, and other tools safely ignore. Thus the GNU utility readelf can be used to inspect TI generated ELF files. Conversely, TI tools can read Linux ELF files. Here is an example using armofd, the object file display utility from the ARM toolset:
% armofd /bin/ls | less OBJECT FILE: /bin/ls Object File Information File Name: /bin/ls Format: ELF Version 1 File Type: executable file Machine: Intel 80386 Machine Endian: little endian Entry Point: 0x080498c0 Number of Sections: 26 File Length: 67700 ELF Class: 32-bit objects ELF e_flags: 0x00000000 Program Segment Table ...
The best way to find an ELF specification is by starting with TI documentation. The ARM compiler book contains a section titled Application Binary Interface. This section includes a link to the specification for EABI. From there, you can find a current specification for ELF. (Sorry this is a bit inconvenient. But anything else is likely to go stale, out of date, or worse. As of November 2016, here is a link to an ELF specification.)
COFF: Common Object File Format
The first object file format used by TI toolsets is called COFF, which stands for Common Object File Format. COFF first appeared in early Unix systems. COFF is not an industry standard. TI adopted COFF from Unix, then started customizing it. This pattern occurred at other companies as well, including MicroSoft. So, while TI and MicroSoft both use COFF, the resulting object files are in no way compatible.
For compilers which support both formats, the switch --abi=coffabi sets the application binary interface (ABI) to COFF ABI, which includes, among other things, use of COFF format.
The best documentation on the TI variant of COFF is this application note. Note there is not enough information in that application note to write your own COFF handling code. See the next section for that.
Processing Object Files
So, you want to do some kind of processing on TI object files. Because reading specs and parsing binary files is neither fun nor productive, TI provides the Object File Display utility. The ARM toolset utility is named armofd. Other toolsets have a utility with a similar name. It is documented in the Assembly Language Tools User's Guide for your toolset.
As seen in the example above, lots of information can be obtained with default options. You can get that same information in XML format by using -x. And you can process that XML data with the cg_xml package.
There is also Python code related to parsing COFF files as referenced in Python scripts for AIS and COFF.
These are much better options than creating your own custom solution.
Hex Files Come from Object Files
Another representation of the information in an object file is a hexadecimal file, or hex file. A hex file is created by using the hex conversion utility from your toolset. The ARM hex conversion utility is named armhex. Other toolsets have a hex conversion utility with a similar name. The input is an object file, and the output is a hex file. It is documented in the Assembly Language Tools User's Guide for your toolset.
Hex files are used in numerous ways. A typical use case is programming flash memory with a utility that does not accept an object file as input, but a hex file instead.
While an object file is binary, a hex file is an ASCII text file. You can inspect a hex file with your favorite text editor. There are several different hex file formats. The following is the beginning of a hex file that uses Intel MCS-86 format.
:20002000002A4AD05FEA000C8B071CD1830722D1102A08D370B4103A78C978C0103AFBD218 :2000400070BC103238D0042A2CD3082A05D30C2A24BF08C908C008C908C008C908C0920776 :200060002AD0920F22E00B780370491C401C521E22D08B07F7D1C30714D18307D8D0121F5E :2000800012D308C943801B0C0380001D121FF8D20AE008C9C3701B0A83701B0A43701B0A22
Comparing Sizes: Object Files, Hex Files, System Memory Image
An object file contains much more than the binary bits loaded to system memory. It contains additional information such as symbol tables, relocation entries, and debug information (described next). Therefore an object file typically takes up many more bytes than the corresponding image in system memory. A hex file contains additional information such as addresses and checksums, as well as spacing. So while a hex file is smaller than the corresponding object file, it is also larger than the image in system memory.
Debug Information Format
Object files commonly contain information read by a debugger (such as CCS) to do things such as associate an address with a line of source code. Because of this relationship, it is common to think debug information is another detail of the object file format. It isn't. The format of the debug information is specified separately. It is better to think of the debug information as a separate concept that just happens to be encoded within an object file. In theory, an object file may contain debug information encoded in any format.
As of this writing, the default debug format used by TI compilers is DWARF version 3. It is possible to select Dwarf version 2, 3, or 4. This probably merits a separate Wiki article. But for now, here are a few links.