Industrial Control Workshop

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DESCRIPTION

The C2000™ Industrial Control Workshop is a three day hands-on workshop which combines technical seminars in control theory with an update on the latest developments in digital control of power electronics applications. Three 1-day modules are combined to provide an in-depth, application based, hands-on training workshop. The course is presented in four different formats; two are focussed on digital motor control, and two on digital control of switching power supplies.

To register, visit... Registration web site

Format 1a
  • Day 1. Control Theory Fundamentals
  • Day 2. Teaching Old Motors New Tricks
  • Day 3. C28x Hands-on Workshop
Format 1b
  • Day 1. Control Theory Fundamentals
  • Day 2. Power Conversion & Control
  • Day 3. C28x Hands-on Workshop
Format 2a
  • Day 1. C28x Hands-on Workshop
  • Day 2. Teaching Old Motors New Tricks
  • Day 3. Simplifying Motor Control with Tools & Software
Format 2b
  • Day 1. C28x Hands-on Workshop
  • Day 2. Digital Power Control 1-day Workshop
  • Day 3. Power Conversion & Control


A PDF file summarising the four formats can be found here: File:Industrial Control Workshop formats.pdf

The instructors are Texas Instruments engineers with considerable experience in their selected discipline. Their biographies are shown further down this page.

The workshop is typically delivered four times per year in the USA / Canada. To register interest in running a course in your location, or if you are interested in hosting a workshop, please contact the course administrator; Kim Rutherford at (781) 895–9185 / k-rutherford@ti.com


MODULES

* Control Theory Fundamentals

This one day technical seminar offers a refresher of elementary control theory which will be valuable to electronic, electrical and mechanical engineers of all levels. No prior knowledge of the subject is assumed, although an understanding of basic engineering mathematics will be beneficial. The material is organized into four sections.

Outline

The course opens with a review of fundamental concepts, including linear differential equations and the Laplace transform. The behaviour of classical first and second order systems is examined in both the time and the frequency domains.

The second section introduces closed loop control and the effects of negative feedback in the frequency domain. The Nyquist plot is introduced as a valuable tool to assess control loop stability and performance, and is applied to the design of phase compensators.

The central theme of section three is control performance in the time domain. The design and tuning of PID controllers is explained using the step response, and various methods of assessing quality of response are presented. The root locus plot then is introduced as a method of designing complex systems to meet transient response specifications.

Section four focuses on discrete time systems. The z-transform is introduced, and the relationship between the s-plane and z-plane explained in detail. The design of digital closed loop controllers is then described using emulation and direct design methods. Also covered are some important practical considerations when implementing discrete time controllers, including aliasing, sample rate selection, the effects of computational delay, and zero order hold.

Agenda

  • Fundamental Concepts: Linear systems, Transient response, Frequency analysis, Minimum phase systems
  • Feedback Systems: Effects of feedback, Nyquist analysis, Stability margins, Phase compensation
  • Transient Tuning: Transient response, Steady state error, PID control, Root locus analysis
  • Discrete Time Systems: Sampled systems, The z-transform, z plane mapping, discrete transformations, aliasing


The material is supported by many practical examples and tutorials, and includes a brief question and answer session at the end of each section. Matlab is used throughout the seminar to illustrate new concepts and to introduce each major topic. Printed copies of the seminar manual containing all the presentation material are issued to attendees at the start of the course.

Seminar materials can be downloaded here: Control Theory Seminar web page


* Teaching Old Motors New Tricks

While motor topologies have remained relatively unchanged over the past century, control techniques by comparison have experienced explosive growth. This has been driven in large part by technology advancements in the semiconductor industry. This seminar focuses specifically on advancements in the control of motors, with an emphasis on field-oriented principles with brushless AC motors.

NOTE: The attendee will need to bring a PC laptop in order to participate in the lab exercises.

Control Systems Overview

The foundation for any motor control system is the control loop itself. This section covers the following subjects:

  • Feedback vs. Feedforward Systems
  • The PI Controller
  • Designing Digital Control Systems

Field Oriented Control

Of all the motor control algorithms developed to date, Field Oriented Control is perhaps the most significant and the most widely applicable. This section will teach you how FOC works, and how to use it with different motors.

  • Space Vector Representation of 3-Phase Systems
  • Four Steps to Field-Oriented Control
  • Space Vector Modulation
  • FOC Tuning
  • FOC Variations for Different Motors
  • FOC Lab Exercise

Sensorless Control Techniques

Due to the high cost of the motor shaft angle sensor, FOC techniques have until recently been relegated to expensive industrial applications. But powerful new algorithms have been developed which can generate the required shaft information without using a shaft sensor. These developments coupled with the falling cost of processing power have led to FOC being viable for almost all AC motor applications. The following topics are covered in this section:

  • Tracking Filters
  • Observers
  • EMF-Based Observers
  • Sliding Mode Observers
  • Direct Torque Control (DTC)
  • Lab Exercise

InstaSPIN-FOC

TI has developed a revolutionary new sensorless FOC algorithm which can be used with any AC motor. This section will discuss the advantages of InstaSPIN-FOC over traditional sensorless FOC techniques, and conclude with a demonstration of this technology.

Seminar materials can be downloaded here: Motor Drive & Control web page


* C2000 Microcontroller One day Workshop

The C2000 Microcontroller one-day workshop is a hands-on technical course facilitated by Ken Schachter. The workshop is based on the Piccolo F28069 device. which combines many common features and peripherals of the Piccolo and Delfino families. Therefore, this workshop would be very useful to anyone interested in the C2000 MCU family of devices.

The workshop steps the user through system initialization, peripheral setup and programming an application into flash memory using the CCS on-chip Flash programmer. Every lab exercise builds on the previous lab exercise, running a common application theme through the workshop. The lab exercises are performed using the F28069 Control STICK USB Evaluation tool that will be provided at the class and is available to take home afterwards.

This workshop is tailored for hardware and/or software design engineers who plan on designing with TI C2000 Microcontrollers. Basic experience with general MCUs and knowledge of C language programming is assumed.

NOTE: The attendee will need to bring a PC laptop in order to participate in the lab exercises.

Outline

  • Workshop Introduction
  • Architecture Overview
  • Programming Development Environment
Lab: Linker command file
  • Peripheral Register Header Files
  • Reset, Interrupts and System Initialization
Lab: Watchdog and interrupts
  • Control Peripherals
Lab: Generate and graph a PWM waveform
  • Flash Programming
Lab: Run the code from flash memory
  • The Next Step ...


All workshop participants will receive a free controlSTICK at the start of class to run workshop labs and take home upon class completion to help reinforce the workshop concepts.

Workshop materials can be downloaded here: C2000 Piccolo One-day Workshop Home page


* Digital Power Control Workshop

This 1-day hands-on workshop provides an introduction to the digital control of switching power supplies using the C28x micro-controller. A digitally controlled dual channel DC-DC buck converter is used to illustrate the concepts and provide results. The latest advanced on-chip microcontroller features allow easy implementation of techniques such as peak current mode control, greatly simplifying the system implementation. The workshop is divided into four sections, each of which includes a hands-on lab using a workshop hadrdware kit. The seminar opens with a description of the features which define a digital power supply. This section also describes the process of selecting a controller and the implementation of most popular power conversion topologies.

In section 2, PWM generation for driving switches in different power topologies is presented along with important considerations for PWM and ADC timing. Software is divided into a high speed control section and a background state machine to run system level tasks. Fault protection mechanisms are discussed in detail and open loop operation results obtained with the seminar kit are presented and discussed. Block diagrams of several reference designs and evaluation kits are presented and discussed, including 2-phase boost power factor correction, phase shifted full-bridge DC-DC, LLC resonant, and multi-phase interleaved converters. The power supply applications discussed here include server power supplies, telecom rectifiers, battery chargers, LED lighting systems and renewable energy systems.

Section 3 focusses on implementing Peak Current Mode Control. The advantages and disadvantages of PCMC schemes are discussed and compared with those of average current mode control (ACMC) and voltage mode control (VMC) schemes. Some of the major challenges to implement microcontroller based PCMC schemes are discussed, including slope compensation, blanking, maintaining constant average output voltage with changing load, and complex PWM waveform generation for isolated power stages using synchronous rectification.

Next, the ADC module is introduced and discussed in detail, together with the importance of ADC sample-to-update time and the optimum sampling point in a switching cycle. Closed loop system block diagrams for the seminar power stage under VMC and PCMC schemes are presented. The tuning of a 3-pole 3-zero controller structure is discussed, beginning with an intuitive method by mapping PID gains, to arriving at optimum coefficients by mathematical modeling of the system. Closed loop operation results obtained with the seminar kit are presented. The workshop concludes with a summary of the digital power development kits available from TI.


Agenda

1. Digital Power Introduction Digital Power Overview, C28x Architecture, PowerWARE Lab 1: Controlling Power with the C28x

2. Open Loop Operation PWM Generation, Scaling, Power Topologies Lab 2: Driving the Power Stage

3. Current Mode Control Analog Subsystem, Peak Current Mode Control, Slope Compensation Lab 3: Peak Current Mode Control

4. Closed Loop Control The Digital Control Law, The Control Law Accelerator (CLA), Phase Compensation, Software Frequency Response Analyzer (SFRA) Lab 4: Closed Loop Power Control

Materials for the previous version can be downloaded at the following Wiki page: DPS Workshop v2


* Power Conversion & Control

This one day seminar aims to provide practising engineers with a grounding in the digital control of power converters using the C2000 micro-controller. The course will be valuable to electronic, and electrical engineers of all levels who are engaged or interested in the digital control of power converters. The seminar is divided into five sections, beginning with a technical overview of the C2000 micro-controller platform – a processer specifically designed for the control of switching power electronics.

Section 2 describes four high-voltage digital power reference designs: a phase-shifted full bridge employing digital peak current mode control with zero voltage switching (ZVS), a 2-phase inter-leaved boost PFC, a bridge-less PFC, and a resonant LLC DC-DC converter. Each topology is explained in detail, together with software diagrams, test results and schematics.

The third section focuses on the design of the digital control loops, using a PFC converter as an example. The process is divided into multiple steps, starting with the design of a high-speed inner current control loop, then moving on to describe the design of the outer voltage control loop.

Section four is devoted to the control of a solar micro-inverter board. The board consists of a fly-back with active clamp and an inverter stage. The seminar concludes with a summary of the C28x platform and the various development tools and resources available to the designer.


Agenda

  • C2000 Technical Overview
  • C2000 Digital Power Evaluation Board Design

(Interleaved PFC, PCMC Phase Shifted Full Bridge, Bridge-less PFC, Half Bridge Resonant LLC)

  • Digital Control Loop Design
  • C2000 Solar Micro-Inverter Kit
  • Summary


* Simplifying Motor Control with Tools & Software

This 1-day hands-on workshop provides practising motor engineers and designers with hands-on experience of implementing motor control using TI's 'MotorWare" software library and "InstaSPIN" estimator algorithm. The workshop is divided into seven sections:

FOC Theory: Field Oriented Control will be covered and this section, using animations and a simple analogy of a DC motor to understand FOC.

InstaSPIN–FOC: An introduction to the recently introduced InstaSPIN–FOC is given in this section of the workshop. The FAST™ estimator will be covered, as well as the different pieces that are put together around the estimator for a complete sensorless motor control solution.

Motor Identification: The motor identification state diagrams are discussed in this section of the workshop.

Sensorless FOC for PMSM and ACIM: This module covers the details involved when implementing a sensorless FOC system for the two most popular motors, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) and Alternating Current Induction Motors (ACIM).

MotorWare™: The software implementation of InstaSPIN is put together in a directory structure and follows strict coding guidelines to allow portability, efficiency and scalability of the code. MotorWare embraces all the software related to InstaSPIN, its modules and more. This section of the workshop takes a closer look into the MotorWare package.

Rs Online Recalibration: In a typical application where the motor is sealed, or where overdriving the motor is required, temperature affects the parameters of the motor. The Rs Online algorithm, which is part of the InstaSPIN–FOC solutions, helps recalibrate the stator resistance (Rs) while the motor is running producing full torque.

PowerWarp™: Along with InstaSPIN–FOC, a new method to increase the efficiency of an ACIM is introduced by TI. The reliability of the FAST estimator allows putting ACIM to sleep without losing control of the motor.

NOTE: The attendee will need to bring a PC laptop in order to participate in the lab exercises.

Agenda

  • FOC Theory
  • InstaSPIN-FOC
  • Motor Identification
  • Sensorless FOC for PMSM and ACIM
  • MotorWare
  • Rs Online Recalibration
  • PowerWarp


Presentations from this module can be downloaded here:
File:IS Workshop 1 - Intro to FOC.pdf
File:IS Workshop 2 - InstaSPIN-FOC.pdf
File:IS Workshop 6 - Motor ID State Diagrams.pdf
File:IS Workshop 7 - Interia ID.pdf
File:IS Workshop 13 - ISM Speed Controller.pdf
File:IS Workshop 16 - Rs Online Recalibration.pdf
File:IS Workshop 17 - PowerWarp.pdf

PRESENTERS

Workshop Presenters (l to r): Ken Schachter, Dave Wilson, Richard Poley

Ken Schachter (C28x Hands-on Workshop)

Ken Schachter has been with Texas Instruments for over 31 years and is a Senior Member of the Technical Staff in the Technical Training Organization. He has been working with the TMS320 product family since its inception in the early 80’s. Responsibilities include the C2000 course development, material update/review, and instructor for the hands-on multi-day and one-day workshops. His educational background includes a Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering from the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and a Master of Science in System Engineering from Polytechnic University. He has a Professional Engineering license from the State of New York. Ken is a Senior Member of the IEEE.


Dave Wilson (Teaching Old Motors New Tricks)

Presenter for this session is Dave Wilson. Dave is the team lead for a motor control applications team at Texas Instruments. He has 32 years of experience working on projects ranging from nuclear pulse processing to artificial intelligence pattern recognition. He has designed motor control systems as simple as trigger controls for power tools, and as complex as a six-axis DSP servo stage controller for a scanning electron microscope. He is also the author of several articles, patents, and conference papers related to motor control. Dave holds a BSEE from John Brown University and an MSEE from the University of Wisconsin. His passions include hiking, camping, photography, guitar, and, of course, rotating metal.


Richard Poley (Control Theory & Digital Power Control)

Richard began his career in the military where he worked on electro-optical surveillance & gun control equipment. He then took a post in industry as a design engineer working on electronic measurement and control systems. Richard spent a year at the submarine cables department of British Telecom working on high-speed optical communications systems before joining Texas Instruments in 2000. At TI, he spent nine years as Field Applications Engineer in North Europe specialising in digital control applications before moving to Houston to join the C2000 System Applications team. He currently organises and develops training courses on the C2000 micro-controller platform and applications. In addition this work, Richard regularly delivers seminars in control system theory and design.


Shamim Choudhury (Power Conversion & Control)

Shamim Choudhury has been with Texas Instruments Inc. since December 1997 where he currently serves as a Senior Systems & Application Engineer with C2000 Digital Power group. As a member of the system applications team, his main areas of interest have been on digital control of AC-DC & DC-DC switching power supplies, Power Factor Correction converters, UPS and Solar Inverter control systems. He holds two U.S. patents on these topics. He has published and presented multiple papers and TI application reports in these areas. Prior to his joining TI, Shamim spent 2 years at Alcatel, and 3 years at International Game Technology, as a Design Engineer working on switch mode power supplies. He received his M.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from Texas A&M University in College Station, TX, in December 1991. He is a member of the IEEE Power Electronics Society.


Jorge Zambada (Simplifying Motor Control with Tools & Software)

Jorge Zambada is a Sr. Motor Control Applications Engineer at Texas Instruments. He has over 14 years of experience working on motor control applications for the semiconductor industry, including Freescale, Microchip and Texas Instruments. He has developed applications for refrigerator compressor controllers, air conditioning compressors, washing machines and automotive motor controllers. He is also the author of several articles and application notes related to motor control. Jorge holds a BSEE from ITESM Guadalajara, Mexico. His passions include camping, traveling around the world, coral beaches and of course, controlling motors.