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SAT - Processors - USB Charger

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Purpose of this Wiki Page

This wiki page is intended to be a resource for support engineers, designers, and technical sales to help find appropriate TI silicon to support their processor/controller/FPGA design. The examples in this section is contextual and may not address the needs of every design.

Introduction

This page supports the design of a USB Charger. As shown in Figure 1 below, the protection of the circuit is done similarly to a USB host device, but there is negotiation over the data lines to communicate a higher charge current allowing the end device to be charged faster. This negotiation is done a few different ways for different manufactures. The three most common protocols are USB Battery Charging Specification, Revision 1.2 (BC1.2), Chinese Telecommunications Industry Standard YD/T 1591-2009, and Divider Mode. The two main protection concerns for your USB port, ESD protection of the power and data lines and Over Current Protection of the power lines. ESD protection is important for both power and data connections because USB connectors are exposed and can come in contact with many different objects. Over current protection is important for your power supply in case of a short or a device that wants to draw more current than can be safely given. Suggested part numbers are also highlighted in the block diagram below, as well as a list of possible alternative part numbers.

USB Power Supply Specifications

The USB 1.x and 2.0 specifications provide a 5 V supply on a single wire to power connected USB devices. The specification provides for no more than 5.25 V and no less than 4.75 V (5 V±5%) between the positive and negative bus power lines. For USB 3.0, the voltage supplied by low-powered hub ports is 4.45–5.25 V.

A unit load is defined as 100 mA in USB 2.0, and 150 mA in USB 3.0. A device may draw a maximum of 5 unit loads (500 mA) from a port in USB 2.0; 6 (900 mA) in USB 3.0. There are two types of devices: low-power and high-power. A low-power device draws at most 1 unit load, with minimum operating voltage of 4.4 V in USB 2.0, and 4 V in USB 3.0. A high-power device draws, at most, the maximum number of unit loads the standard permits. Every device functions initially as low-power—but may request high-power, and gets it if it's available on the providing bus.[1]

Standard Downstream Ports

A standard downstream port only allows the device to draw more than 100 mA current after digital negotiation with the host or hub. The maximum supplied power on

  • USB 2.0(High Speed)
    • Before negation 1 Unit of power (100mA)
    • After negotiation 5 Units of power (500mA)
  • USB 3.0(super Speed)
    • Before negotiation 1 Unit (150mA)
    • After negotiation 6 Units (900mA)


Battery Charging Specification 1.2 (BC1.2)

Charging Downstream Port(CDP)

CDP Required Operating Range

A charging downstream port allows high current charging while operating a high speed data link. A host port that grants the CDP handshake is required to support LS, FS, HS and chirp signaling(negation for High speed data link)while supplying up to 1.5A. While supplying up to 1.5A a charging downstream port must also stay within USB voltage specifications(5V ± 5%). The maximum current allowed on a CDP is limited to the maximum the connector can handle. 5A is the max safe limit on a USB 2.0 conector, but standard USB 2.0 A-connectors are rated at 1.5 A

CDP specs for BC1.2

  • USB 2.0(high speed)
    • Unconfigured devices are allowed to draw up to 1.5A
    • While a device is chirping or transferring data device is allowed to draw up to 1.5A
    • Absolute maximum current draw allowed but not required is the limit of the USB 2.0 connector, up to 5A
  • USB 3.0(high speed)
    • Unconfigured devices are allowed to draw up to 1.5A
    • While a device is chirping or transferring data device is allowed to draw up to 1.5A
    • Absolute maximum current draw allowed but not required is the limit of the USB 2.0 connector, up to 5A



Dedicated Charging Port (DCP)

DCP Required Operating Range

A dedicated charging port is a downstream port on a device that outputs power through a USB connector, but is not capable of enumerating a downstream device, which generally allows portable devices to fast charge at their maximum rated current.

  • USB Battery Charging Specification, Revision 1.2 (BC1.2)
    • D+ and D– data lines are shorted together with a maximum series impedance of 200 Ω.
    • Required to supply more than 500mA
    • Voltage must stay within USB specifications while supplying less than 500mA.
    • Must not cut off power supply until voltage drops below 2V or current exceeds 1.5A
    • Absolute maximum current draw allowed but not required is the limit of the USB 2.0 connector, up to 5A


Chinese Telecommunications Industry Standard YD/T 1591-2009

The Chinese Telecommunications Industry Standard follows the Battery charging Specifications 1.1(BC1.1). The specification are similar but more strict when compared to BC1.2.

Charging Downstream Port(CDP)

CDP Required Operating Range

A charging downstream port allows high current charging while operating a data link. While supplying up to 500mA a charging downstream port must also stay within USB voltage specifications(5V ± 5%). The maximum current allowed on a CDP is 1.5A.

CDP specs for BC1.1

  • USB 2.0(high speed)
    • While chirping(negoation for high speed) max curent draw is 560mA
    • While in high speed max curent draw is 900mA
    • While a device is in low or full speed max curent draw is 1.5A
    • Absolute maximum current draw allowed is 1.5A





Dedicated Charging Port (DCP)

DCP Required Operating Range

A dedicated charging port is a downstream port on a device that outputs power through a USB connector, but is not capable of enumerating a downstream device, which generally allows portable devices to fast charge at their maximum rated current.

  • USB Battery Charging Specification, Revision 1.1 (BC1.1)
    • D+ and D– data lines are shorted together with a maximum series impedance of 200 Ω.
    • Required to supply more than 500mA
    • Voltage must stay within USB specifications while supplying less than 500mA
    • Absolute maximum current draw is 1.5A


Divider Mode Dedicated Charging Port

There are two divider modes one that supplies 1A and the second that supplies 2A. Divider mode is used by apple chargers.

  • Divider 1
    • Applying 2.0 V on D+ Line and 2.7 V on D– Line
    • Maximum allowable current draw of 1A
    • Used for apple phone chargers
  • Divider 2
    • Applying 2.7 V on D+ Line and 2.0 V on D– Line
    • Maximum allowable current draw of 2.1A
    • Used for apple ipad chargers


Other Dedicated Charging Ports

This method is used for some Samsung tablet chargers.

  • 1.2V DCP
    • 1.2 V to the D+ Line and 1.2 V to the D– Line
    • Maximum allowable current draw of 2.1A
    • Output voltage 5V


Block Diagram

Charger wire.png


Figure 1. A Block Diagram of a USB Charge Device

Detailed Block Digram

Template USB2.0 Charger R.png


Figure 2. A Block Diagram of a TPS2511 based USB Charger

Recommended EVMs

TPS2511 Evaluation Module

TPS2511EVM.png


TPS2543 USB Charging Port Power Switch & Controller Evaluation Module

Posible Use of TPS2543 EVM and UCC28610/UCC24610 EVM
Tps2543evm.jpg


UCC28610 Green-Mode Flyback Controller and UCC24610 Secondary Side Synchronous Rectifier

UCC28610.png


Recommended Reference Designs

AC Off-Line

85VAC-265VAC Input, 5V@4A Dual Port Charger For Tablets and Smart Phones

Pmp8817.png


85VAC-265VAC Input, 5V@2A Eco-Charger For Tablets and Smart Phones

Pmp8363.png


Automotive

Dual-Port Automotive USB Charger

Pmp6934.jpg


Dual-Port Automotive USB Charger

Pmp7390.png


9-40V Automotive Input, 5V@2.1A Smart USB Charger

Pmp7388.png


Recommended Part Numbers

Combination USB DCP + OCP

TPS2511 - USB Dedicated Charging Port Controller and Current Limiting Power Switch

ESD Array

TPD4S012 - 4-Channel USB ESD Solution with Power Clamp

Power Supplies

AC Ofline Power

UCC28710 - Constant-Voltage, Constant-Current PWM Controller with Primary-Side Regulation

Computer/Accessory

TPS54240 - 3.5V to 42V Input, 2.5A, Step-Down Converter with Eco-Mode

3.3V or Single-cell Li-Ion/Li-Po

TPS43000 - Multi-Topology (buck, boost, sepic) High Frequency DC/DC Controller

CSD16340Q3 - N Channel NexFET™ Power MOSFET

CSD25401Q3 - P-Channel NexFET™ Power MOSFET



Alternative Part Numbers

Combination USB CDP + DCP + OCP

TPS2543 - USB Charging Port Power Switch & Controller

USB DCP

TPS2513 - USB Dedicated Charging Port Controller

USB OCP

TPS2561A - USB Dedicated Charging Port Controller

ESD Array

TPD4E1U06 - Quad Channel High Speed ESD Protection Device

Power Supplies

AC Ofline Power

UCC28700 - Constant-Voltage, Constant-Current PWM with Primary-Side Regulation

UCC28610 - 12-65W Green-mode Flyback Power Supply Controller

UCC24610 - Secondary Side Synchronous Rectifier Controller

Computer/Accessory

TPS5430 - 5.5V to 36V Input, 3A, 500kHz Step-Down Converter



Automotive Qualified Part Numbers

Combination USB DCP + OCP

TPS2511-Q1 - USB Dedicated Charging Port Controller and Current Limiting Power Switch

TPS2543-Q1 - Automotive USB Charging Port Power Switch & Controller

ESD Array

TPD2E001-Q1 - Automotive Catalog Low-Capacitance 2-Channel +/-15 kV ESD-Protection Array for High-Speed Data Inter

TPD4E001-Q1 - (PREVIEW) Automotive Low-Capacitance 4-Channel +/-15-kV ESD Protection

Power Supplies

Off Battery (start/stop)

TPS54240-Q1 - 3.5V to 42V Input, 2.5A, 2.5MHz Step-Down SWIFT(tm) Converter with Eco-Mode

TPS540170 - 4.5 V to 60 V Wide-Input Synchronous PWM Buck Controller



Related pages

SAT - Processors - USB End Device

SAT - Processors - USB Host Device

SAT - Processors - USB Hub Device

SAT - Processors - USB On The Go

References

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Serial_Bus#Power