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If-conversion is the optimization that deletes a branch around an instruction and replaces it with a predicate on the instruction.
Typically, an "if-then" statement causes the compiler to create a conditional branch instruction to branch around the "then" code if the if-condition evaluates to false. If-conversion removes the branch and predicates the instructions in the "then" (and "else") portions of the if statement. If-conversion may be required for a loop to be software pipelined.